The different types of testing framework techniques?

What are the different types of testing framework techniques?

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There are four types of automation testing framework techniques.

Modular Testing framework

This framework is built on the concept of abstraction. In this framework, the tester creates scripts for each module of the application under test individually and then these scripts are combined in the hierarchical order to create large test cases.

It creates an abstraction layer between the modules, thus any modifications in test scripts for one module do not affect any other modules.

Advantages of this framework:

  • Easier maintenance and scalability of test cases.
  • Creating test cases by using already scripted modules is easier and faster.


  • Test cases have data embedded in them. Thus executing the same test script with different data is a big change at the script level.

Data-Driven Testing framework

In the Data-driven testing framework, the input data and the expected output data corresponding to the input data is stored in a file or database and the automated script runs the same set of test steps for multiple sets of data. With this framework, we can run multiple test cases where only the input data differs and the steps of execution are the same.


  • Reduces the number of test scripts that are required to be executed. We execute the same script multiple times with different data.
  • Less coding for automation testing.
  • Greater flexibility for maintaining and fixing the bugs or enhancing the functionality.
  • Test data can be created even before the automated system for testing is ready.


  • Only similar test cases with the same set of execution steps can be combined for multiple sets of data. The different set of execution steps require a different test case.

Keyword-Driven Testing framework

It is an application-independent testing framework that uses data tables and self-explanatory keywords. Keywords explain the actions to be performed on the application under test and the data table provides the input and expected output data.

Keyword-based testing is an increment to data-driven testing.


  • Less coding and the same script can be used for multiple sets of data.
  • Automation expertise is not required for creating a test case using the already existing keywords for actions.
  • Same keywords can be used across multiple test cases.


  • This framework is more complicated as it needs to take care of the keyword actions and also the data input.
  • Test cases get longer and complex thereby affecting the maintainability of the same.

Hybrid Testing framework

This framework is a combination of all the above-mentioned testing frameworks ( Modular, Data-driven, and Keyword-driven).

In this framework, the test cases are developed from modular scripts by combining them in the modular testing framework. Each of the test cases uses a driver script that uses a data file as in the data-driven framework and a keyword-based action file.


  • Modular and easy to maintain.
  • Less coding can take care of more test cases.
  • One test case can be executed with multiple sets of data.


  • Complex to read, maintain and enhance.